Rev. Dr. J.H. Charlesworth's article in - "Expository Times", February 1973, citing Dr. N. Haas (of the Department of Anatomy Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical School) - Crucifixion posture.
Rev. Dr. Charlesworth concludes, "The major extrabiblical paradigm for crucifixion is no longer Josephus; it is the archeological data summarized" (in the above publication article).
For full article click here

David Michael, previously known as David Mills, (responsible for assisting with the Hebrew "word wealth" contributions to the Spirit-Filled Life Bible, published by Thomas Nelson, Inc.) - Hebrew, Greek and Latin texts.

British Red Cross - fresh wound activity, blood flow.

Various Internet Sites and other media references - graphic flesh mutilation and bruising images.